Complete the table below to explore the application of the principles of training to aerobic and strength training.

Application of the principles of training to aerobic and strength training
 

TRAINING PRINCIPLES

AEROBIC TRAINING

STRENGTH TRAINING

Progressive overload

Specificity

Reversibility

Variety

Training thresholds

Warm up and cool down

 

Training principles answers

TRAINING PRINCIPLES

AEROBIC TRAINING

STRENGTH TRAINING

Progressive overload

  • increase distance
  • increase time
  • increase intensity (decrease time taken to complete set distance)
  • incorporate hills into training
  • increase weight/resistance
  • increase repetitions
  • increase sets
  • decrease rest period between sets

Specificity

  • aerobic activities such as running, swimming, rowing, cycling suited to the sport/performance
  • muscular endurance training for muscles involved in aerobic training e.g. legs, arms
  • include some training of lactic acid system for aerobic events that require short sprints such as triathlon, soccer, etc
  • train the muscles that need to be developed for the sport/performance
  • train the appropriate type of strength training suited to the sport/performance
  • train the muscles at the speed of contraction needed for the sport/performance e.g. explosive movements need fast contractions like those involved in plyometrics

Reversibility

  • aerobic losses are slower than strength losses
  • need to continue training at +70% MHR, 3 times per week to avoid detraining effect
  • may substitute other aerobic activities to keep cardiorespiratory system working
  • losses in strength are greater than aerobic capacity losses over a given time frame
  • regular stimulation of specific muscle fibres are needed to avoid a detraining effect, for example twice a week per muscle/muscle group

Variety

  • cross-training is very effective to reduce boredom and loss of enthusiasm
  • taking part in other activities such as rowing, cycling, swimming, boxing, as well as circuit, Fartlek and interval training will help increase motivation
  • there are a variety of exercises for each muscle and muscle group so it is suggested that you change your program at approximately 4 -8 week intervals
  • you can use different equipment to create variety, for example dumbbells, kettlebells, barbells, resistance bands, medicine balls, and machine weights

Training thresholds

  • individuals need to train within the aerobic training zone, being 70 80% maximum heart rate
  • depending on the type of strength training that is being performed (absolute strength, power, muscular endurance, lean body mass) vary level of intensity.
  • absolute strength requires a very high intensity (resistance) as few repetitions are performed
  • muscular endurance has a lower intensity (resistance) so more repetitions can be performed

Warm up and cool down

  • large muscle group aerobic activities are required to warm up, such as jogging, swimming, rowing, cycling
  • stretching, both static and dynamic, are needed of the large muscle groups involved
  • specific warm up involving the major muscle groups is then followed by activities such as callisthenics (push ups, star jumps) and other movements specific to the activity
  • stretching and low intensity aerobic work for a cool down
  • aerobic activities that warm up the major muscles of the body to be trained, for example, jogging or cycling for leg workouts or rowing for upper body workouts
  • stretching of all muscles involved in the workout, including static and dynamic stretching
  • repeated for the cool down
  • for strength training it is also advised to stretch each muscle group between sets and at the end of the sets before moving onto another body part/muscle